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The Chicago Manual of Style Guide: Quoting and Paraphrasing

This guide will help you format your paper according to the CMoS 17th (2017) edition.

Direct Quotes

Direct Quotes

  • Incorporate text less than 100 words into your text
  • Place the quote in quotation marks
  • Include page reference in parenthesis after quotation mark
  • If quotation ends the sentence place parenthetical reference at end including page reference


While Fierro, Moreales, and Alvarez (2011) found that "no variables regarding the consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs associated with the experiences of being only a victim of road rage" (191), they did find a correlation with the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs and being a perpetrator of road rage incidences.

While several studies have found a connection between alcohol and illicit drug consumption and perpetrating a road rage incident (Butters 2005, Ashbridge, 2006), one study (Fierro, Moreales, and Alvarez, 2011) has found "no variables regarding the consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs associated with the experiences of being only a victim of road rage." (191)

Quotation over 100 words

  • Start a new paragraph
  • Enter text as a free-standing block of text
  • Indent text on left margin by one half inch
  • Double space
  • Place the reference with page number(s) at the end of the quote after punctuation
  • Do not use quotation marks


Older men's somewhat delayed reduction in alcohol consumption relative to older women highlights the importance of health care providers continuing to monitor men's alcohol consumption. More broadly, out finding counter the widespread assumption that alcohol consumption and drinking problems invariably and rapidly decline past middle age and thus have limited relevance as late-life health issues, For many individuals, use of alcohol remains a consistent and important aspect of health status and social functioning even as they advance into later old age. (Brennan, Schutte, Moos, and Moos, 2011, 319)


Don't rely too heavily on the use of quotes in your paper.  Rather, employ the technique of rephrasing the cited idea into you own words.

Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style for further information on quotation style.


Rephrasing another's ideas into you own words is known as paraphrasing.

With paraphrasing you still do need to site the original resource; however, if you are borrowing heavily from an author but still using you own words, add a reference. You are citing the ideas! Give credit where credit is due.


Secondary or Indirect Sources

If you choose to quote work that is used in the resource you are using you are encouraged to find the original work. There are cases where you might be are unable to track down the original source. In this case, both the original and the secondary source must be listed in the note and the bibliography. Cite the original and secondary source based on their publication type (i.e., book/article), linked with the "quoted in" information.
If you were reading a book and the author of the book (in the example below, that would be A. Cairns) made reference to the work done by another author (in the example below, that would be Edward A. Said), you would refer to the work using the format listed below. 
Original Author: author of the original source
Secondary Source Author: the author of the book/article that refers to the thoughts/ideas of the original author
1. Original Author First Name/Initial Surname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #, quoted in Secondary Source's Author First Name/Initial Surname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #.
1. Edward A. Said, Culture and Imperialism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), quoted in A. Cairns, Citizens Plus: Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian State (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 2000), 103. 
Subsequent Note: 
2. Original Author Surname, Title.
2. Said, Culture and Imperialism.
Original Author Surname, First Name/Initial. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Quoted in Secondary Source's Author First Name/Initial Surname. TitlePlace of Publication: Publisher, Year, page #.
Said, Edward A. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1993. Quoted in A. Cairns, Citizens Plus: Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian StateVancouver, BC: UBC Press, 2000.
NOTE: Because the example above cites a book that was quoted in another book, both parts of the citation resemble that of a book. The format of these parts should change according to the kind of sources being cited.