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The Chicago Manual of Style Guide: Author-Date vs. Notes and Bibliography

This guide will help you format your paper according to the CMoS 17th (2017) edition.

Author-Date vs. Note and Bibliography

 

The Chicago style uses two methods for citing resources. The Notes and Bibliography method uses numbered footnotes or end notes to cite resources and usually a corresponding bibliography at the end of the paper. The Author-Date method uses in-text parenthetical references and a corresponding Reference List. You should check with your instructor or class syllabus to determine which method to use.
 
Parenthetical references are used within the text of your paper to lead the reader to your reference list. Typically the parenthetical reference will consist of the author's last name followed by the publication date of the article you are citing. Some examples of parenthetical references are below.
 
Please consult the Chicago Manual of Style for more advanced and complex examples.
 
The basic technique is to weave references into the text of your paper as you are making a point or presenting an idea.
 
Author-Date
 
Examples
 
In his study on brown algae Smith (2006), found that...
 
In 2006, Smith found that brown algae...
 
Brown algae has been found to be detrimental to the shellfish harvest (Smith 2006).
 
Author cited subsequently:
 
Brown algae has been found to be detrimental to the shellfish harvest (Smith, 2006, 24-38). The oxygen intake of scallops was measured to be lower in brown tide infested waters (34).
 
The Chicago style uses two methods for citing resources. The Notes and Bibliography method uses numbered footnotes or endnotes to cite resources and usually a corresponding bibliography at the end of the paper. The Author-Date method uses in-text parenthetical references and a corresponding Reference List. You should check with your instructor or class syllabus to determine which method to use.
 
The Notes and Bibliography format is helpful for researchers that wish or need to elaborate on certain resources. The Notes are usually numbered within the text as super-scripted text. The corresponding footnote or endnote with the full citation is placed at the foot or end of the section or paper. There is more flexibility to add additional information about a resource within the note field. See the example below from the Journal of American History that is using footnotes.
 
 
Do not use the abbreviation ibid. to repeat a citation to the same resource. Simply note the author(s) and page number.
 
Example:
 
7. Alistair Bruce and Rodion Skovoroda, Bankers’ Bonuses and the Financial Crisis: Context, Evidence and the Rhetoric–policy Gap, Business History, 55 (2013): 139-160, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2012.715283.
 
8. Bruce and Skovoroda, 143.
 
9. Bruce and Skovoroda, 155-160.
 
Please consult the Chicago Manual of Style for more advanced and complex examples.