Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Citation Guide: Streaming Video & Digital Media

This guide shows you how to cite references in current (7th edition) APA style

Streaming Video fromĀ a Library DatabaseĀ (Films on Demand, Kanopy)

Name of Company/Organization that Provided Content or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. if known. (Director). (Year video was created, Month Day if known). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service.

Example

Owen, D. (Director). (1967). The Ernie game [Video]. NFB Education.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company/Organization/Creator, Year)

Example: (Owen, 1967)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company/Organization, Year)

Example: (Owen, 1967)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers, or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name known

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. URL

Note:

According to APA 7, the person who posted/uploaded the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2019, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Nye, 2019, 2:12)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name unknown

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. URL

Note:

According to APA 7, the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

All Aces Media. (2021, January 19). Often awesome the series [Video]. Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/35311255

In-Text Paraphrase

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2021)

In-Text Quote

(User name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2021, 3:17)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Streaming Movie from a Subscription Media Website (Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hulu, etc.)

Director's Last Name, First Initial, Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company.

Note:

Only specify how you watched a film (on DVD, streaming service, etc.) when it is important to indicate a specific version. Put this information in square brackets following the word, "Film" and a semicolon. If there is more than one director, use (Directors) instead, and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final director's name. If the director is unknown, credit someone in a similar role (Producer / Writer) and put the title in parentheses after their name.

Example

Gitlitz, R. (Director). (2017). The story of Diana [Film]. ABC Entertainment.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last name, Year)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017, 51:45)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

DVD with Named Producer, Director or Writer

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Director). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [Film; optional descriptive information if DVD is a unique version]. Production Company.

Note:

In general, you don't need to cite the format of a movie. However, include it if the information you are citing can be found only in that particular format or edition (e.g. special features or commentary).  

Example

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Note: If there is more than one production company, separate their names with a semi-colon (;).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jackson, 2001)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Jackson, 2001, 1:23:46)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Movie with Unknown Producer, Director and/or Writer

Title of movie [Film]. (Year movie was produced). Production Company.

Note:

When the Director, Producer and/or Writer is not known, start the citation with the movie title.

Example

Era of viruses [Film]. (2021). Films for the Humanities and Sciences.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Title Of Movie, Year)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2021)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

In-Text Quote

(Title Of Movie, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2021, 1:03:42)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Television Series Episode

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series name. Production Company

Note:

Include the writer and director for the episode and put their job title in parentheses after their names. If one person did both jobs, use (Writer & Director).

Cite the URL for the log-in page instead of the URL for the actual movie. Omit the URL if the TV episode was viewed on cable television rather than online.

Example

Oakley, B. K. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (2020, January 1). The Key (Season 6, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), Vikings. History. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer & Director Last Names, Year)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Writer & Director Last Names, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020, 17:53)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Podcast Episode

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

Example

Rogers, S. (Host). (2012, June 18). Richard Wagamese: Children's book panel (No. 225) [Audio podcast episode]. In The Next Chapter. CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/thenextchapter/episode/2012/06/18/richard-wagamese-bookworm-childrens-book-panel/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

TEDTalk

TED Talk from the TED website

Presenter Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Year Talk was delivered, Month Day if given). Title of Talk: Subtitle if given [Video]. TED Conferences or TED Connects. URL

Example

Gates, B. (2020, March 24). How we must respond to the coronavirus pandemic [Video]. TED Connects.https://www.ted.com/talks/bill_gates_how_we_must_respond_to_the_coronavirus_pandemic?referrer=playlist-the_most_popular_talks_of_2020#t-54902

In-Text Paraphrase

(Presenter's Last Name, Year)

(Gates, 2020)

OR Presenter’s Last Name (Year)

Example: Bill Gates (2020) expressed his concern about the novel virus...

In-Text Quote

(Presenter’s Last Name, Year, Time)

Example: (Gates, 2020, 31:28)

Note: Because TED Talks do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Notes:

When the TED Talk comes from TED’s website, use the name of the speaker as the author.

Provide as specific a date as possible; in the example, the year, month, and day are available.

Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title of the talk.

Credit TED Conferences or TED Connects as the publisher and then provide the URL.

TED Talk from YouTube

Example

TED. (2019, November 13). The danger of AI is weirder than you think | Janelle Shane [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhCzX0iLnOc

In-Text Paraphrase

(Presenter’s Last Name, Year)

Example: (TED, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Presenter’s Last Name, Year, Time)

Example: (TED, 2019, 8:51)

Note: Because TED Talks do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Notes:

When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.

Provide as specific a date as possible.

Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title of the talk.

Credit YouTube as the publisher of the TED Talk and then provide the URL.