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APA Citation Guide: Journal Articles

This guide shows you how to cite references in current (7th edition) APA style

What is a DOI?

Some electronic content is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is provided for a journal article, include it after the page numbers of the article as a hyperlink - https://doi.org/xxxxx

You do not need to put a period after a DOI number.

A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. Generally, DOIs will be available for scholarly articles published after 2011. A DOI helps readers easily locate a document from the citation.

DOI Numbers in Library Databases

Often, the DOI is printed with the article and is featured on its first page in the header or footer.

In EBSCO databases, the DOI is at the bottom of each bibliographic entry in the Results list. 

In Gale databases, the DOI is imprinted at the top (right) of the article page.

In ProQuest databases, the DOI is imprinted at the top (center left) of the article page.

How Do I Know if it's a Journal?

Not sure whether your article is from a journal? Look for these characteristics:

  • Main purpose is often to report results of original search
  • Articles usually have a very narrow, technical subject focus
  • May see labeled sections such as the abstract, discussion, results, and conclusion
  • Author of the article is an expert or specialist in the field and often their credentials are listed
  • Article is intended for students, scientists, researchers and/or professionals instead of the general public
  • Usually includes a References List at the end

Articles may also come from magazines or newspapers.

Access these guides from the How Do I Cite? menu above.

Journal Article from Library Database with DOI - Single Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number

Example

Barnays, N. W. (2021). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Barnays, 2021)

Journal Article from Library Database with DOI - Two to Twenty Authors

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number 

Note:

Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Example

Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text

See chart (multiple authors)

See chart (group or corporate author)

Journal Article from Library Database no DOI - Single Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note:

APA 7 recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Example

Carlisle, D. (2021). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2021)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2021, p. 18)

Journal Article from Library Database no DOI - Two to Twenty Authors

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note:

In the Reference list, invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note:

APA 7 recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2020). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text

See chart (multiple authors)

See chart (group or corporate author)

Journal Article from a Website - Single Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given). URL

Example

Flachs, A. (2020). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1(30). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

(Flachs, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Flachs, 2020, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, so you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. 

Journal Article in Print - Single Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Example

Jungers, W. L. (2020). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463(2), 433-434.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jungers, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

Example: (Jungers, 2020, p. 433)

When You Have 21 or More Authors

When a journal article has twenty-one or more authors:

References List

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Example

Nilsson, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (2021). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2021)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2021, p. 103)

 

In-Text Citation for Two or More Authors

Number of Authors/Editors

First Time Paraphrased

Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased

First Time Quoting

Second and Subsequent Times Quoting

Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2021)

(Case & Daristotle, 2021)

(Case & Daristotle, 2021, p. 57)

(Case & Daristotle, 2021, p. 57)

Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2021)              

(Case et al., 2021)

(Case et al., 2021, p. 57)                

(Case et al., 2021, p. 57)

Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

Example In-Text:

Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2020a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2020b, p. 50).

Example Reference List entries:

Daristotle, J. (2020a). Name of first articleMade Up Journal, 26(39), 18-19. 

Daristotle, J. (2020b). Title of second article. Another Made Up Journal, 35(1), 48-55. 

In-Text Citation for Group or Corporate Authors

Type of Group

First Time Paraphrased

Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased

First Time Quoting

Second and Subsequent Times Quoting

Groups readily identified through abbreviations

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2021)

(NIMH, 2021)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2021, p. 5)

(NIMH, 2021, p. 5)

Groups with no abbreviations

(University of Pittsburgh, 2020)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2020)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2020, p. 2)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2020, p. 2)