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APA Citation Guide: Statistics

This guide shows you how to cite references in current (7th edition) APA style

How do I express Numbers & Statistics?

It's not always easy to convey numerical and statistical information with clarity and precision. For this reason, Sections 6.32–6.35 of the Manual provide guidelines on using numerals vs. words. 

Here are a few pointers:

Use numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) for the following:

  • numbers 10 and above
  • numbers used in statistics (e.g., 2.45, 3 times as many, 2 x 2 design)
  • numbers used with units of measurement (e.g., 7-mg dose, 3-in. increments) 
  • times (e.g.,1 hr 34 min), ages (e.g., 2 years old), and dates (e.g., March 6)
  • scores and points on a scale (e.g., score of 6, 5-point Likert scale)

Use words (one, two, three, etc.) for the following:

  • numbers zero through nine (e.g., five members)
  • numbers beginning a sentence, heading, or title (e.g., Sixty participants volunteered for)
  • common fractions (e.g., one half, one fifth, a two-thirds majority)
  • universally accepted phrases (e.g., Twelve Apostles, Five Pillars of Islam)

Commas in numbers

  • Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more
  • Do not use commas in page numbers, binary digits, serial numbers, degrees of temperature, degrees of freedom, and acoustic frequencies above 1000.

Statistics (see Publication Manual Sections 6.40–6.45 for guidelines on reporting statistics)

  • Do not repeat statistics in both the text and a table or figure
  • In tables and figures, report exact p values (e.g., p = .015), unless p is < .001 (instead write as "<.001")
  • Put a space before and after a mathematical operator (e.g., minus, plus, greater than, less than). For a negative value, put a space only before the minus sign, not after it (e.g., –8.25)
  • Use the symbol or abbreviation for statistics with a mathematical operator (e.g., M = 7.7)
  • Use the term, not the symbol, for statistics in the text (e.g., the means were)

For more information, check out: Numbers and Statistics Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

Statistical Abstract of the United States (ProQuest)

The Statistical Abstract of the United States is a comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.

ProQuest provides over 1400 individually indexed tables with attached spreadsheets. Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and cite it like this:

Authoring agency (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle if given [often a Table]. ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. URL

Example

Bureau of Census (2021). Resident population projections for native and foreign-born populations by age group: 2020 To 2060 [quinquennially, as of July 1]. ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. https://0-statabs-proquest-com.

Statista

Statista provides statistical data on many topics including media, business, politics, society, technology, and education. Sources include market reports, opinion research institutions, trade publications, scientific journals, and government agencies. Charts can be downloaded in PNG, PowerPoint, Excel or PDF formats or embedded in web pages and can be great in papers or presentations. Note: under Source, look for "Survey by," and cite this as author.

Authoring agency. (Publication date). Report title: subtitle if given [Format type]. In Statista. URL

 

Statistics, dossiers, and reports

eMarketer. (2020, April 14). Social media platforms used by adults in the United States during the coronavirus outbreak as of March 2020 [Graph]. In Statistahttps://0-www-statista-com

Spotrac. (2020, June 10). Highest player salaries in Major League Baseball in 2020 (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statistahttps://0-www-statista-com

Statista. (2020). National Hockey League [Dossier]. In Statistahttps://0-www-statista-com

Statista Consumer Market Outlook. (2020, November). Sneaker report 2020 [Report]. In Statistahttps://0-www-statista-com

 

Infographics

Richter, F. (2021, January 12). One year on, the pandemic still rages [Digital image]. In Statistahttps://0-www-statista-com

Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank (referring to itself as a "fact tank") based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world. It also conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis, and other empirical social science research. As authoring agency, cite it like this:

Pew Research Center. (Publication date). Report title: subtitle if given [Format type]. URL

Pew Research Center. (2020, April 20). From virtual parties to ordering food, how Americans are using the internet during COVID-19 [Report]. What Americans are doing online during COVID-19 | Pew Research Center

Note: URLs for Pew Reports are often named, and don't resemble typical https:// addresses. Cut and paste the URL from its source.