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APA Citation Guide: Class Notes, Lectures & Presentations

This guide shows you how to cite references in current (7th edition) APA style

How to Cite from Blackboard

If you retrieved lecture documents (not a journal article or an item available freely online) through a password protected portal such as Blackboard, you should not include the long URL from the Blackboard entry, instead use the homepage of Blackboard (i.e. Blackboard website: http://blackboard.liu.edu).

Note

When citing online lecture notes, provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. [PowerPoint], [PDF], [Excel]).

EXAMPLE

Frank, B. (2021). Lecture 4: Psychophysiology [PowerPoint presentation]. George Washington University, Basics of Psychophysiology. Blackboard: http://blackboard.liu.edu

Presentation Slides from Blackboard

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Blackboard. URL

Example

Graham, J. (2021). Introduction: Jean Watson [PowerPoint presentation]. Blackboard. https://blackboard.liu.edu

Note: The first letter of the word Watson is capitalized, as it is part of a person's name.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Graham, 2021)

In-Text Quote

(Instuctor's Last Name, Year, slide number)

Example (Graham, 2021, slide 6)

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

PowerPoint Presentation Slides from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Name of Website if given. URL

Note about hyperlinks:

It is acceptable for hyperlinks to be blue and underlined (live) or black without underlining.

All hyperlinks must include https://

Example

Kunka, J. L. (n.d.). Conquering the comma [PowerPoint presentation]. Purdue University Writing Lab Website. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/conquering_the_comma_presentation.html

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Kunka, n.d.)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, slide number)

Example: (Kunka, n.d., slide 10)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

Class Handouts from Blackboard

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. Blackboard. URL

Example

Magowan, A. (2020). Career resources at the library [Class handout]. Blackboard. https://blackboard.liu.edu

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Magowan, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Magowan, 2020, p. 2)

Class Handouts in Print

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. LIU Post, Course code.

Example

Wood, D. (2021). Laboratory safety overview [Class handout]. LIU Post, BIO173.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Wood, 2021)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Wood, 2021, p. 1)

Class Lectures & Individual Notes

Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style.

They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.

(First Initial of Faculty Who Gave Lecture. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year lecture took place)

Example

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2012)

Example

Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J. D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2012).