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APA Citation Style Guide: Parenthetical (In-Text) References

Parenthetical (In-Text) References in APA Style

 

Parenthetical references are used within the text of your paper to lead the reader to your reference list.  The parenthetical reference will consist of the author's last name followed by the publication date of the article you are citing.  Some examples of parenthetical references are below. 

√ Please consult the APA Publication Manual for more advanced and complex examples.

√ The basic technique is to weave references into the text of your paper as you are making a point or presenting an idea.

Examples

In his study on brown algae Smith (2006) found that...

In 2006, Smith found that brown algae...

Brown algae is detrimental to the shellfish harvest (Smith, 2006).

 

For multiple authors

√ Cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs

√ Use only the first author followed by et al. for the next time you use the same reference

 Smith, Jones, Peters, and Wiley (2007) found that...

Thereafter use...

Smith et al. (2007) found that...

√ If you refer to the same reference again in the same paragraph, you can drop the date

Smith et al. also found that...

 

No authors

√ For an article with no author use the first few words of the title within quotation marks

In the study ("Genetic variation," 2006) it was found that...

 

Organization or group author

Spell out organization name in first instance and, if possible, use abbreviation thereafter

A recent study on repeat offenders by the National Institute of Justice (2004) found that...

Repeat offenders have a higher occurrence of in prison episodes of violence (NIJ, 2004) than...

 

√ Please refer to the Publication Manual for further information on using parenthetical references