Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

MLA Citation Guide: Videos & Digital Media

This guide shows you how to cite references in current (9th edition) MLA style

Tips

Who to credit - DVD or film

Many people can be involved in the production of a video and not all need to be listed in the citation. To clarify what role the person has in the production, precede each name (or each group of names, if more than one person performed the same function) with a description of the role. Common contributor roles that can be included in the citation include:

  • directed by
  • performance by
  • created by 
  • narrated by
  • edited by

Who to credit - Streaming video from a website

For videos from websites such as YouTube or Vimeo, credit the person who posted the content. If a real name is provided, use it. If the real name of the person who posted the content is not known, use their username.

Time stamps in audio and video recordings

As there are no page numbers in audio and video recordings, include a timestamp instead. Time stamps are given in the following format: 

(Author's Last Name hours:min:seconds-hours:min:seconds) 

If you are citing something that is less than an hour long, you can start minutes. 

Examples: 

(Smith 01:15-02:20)

(Jones 01:20:15-01:22:22) 

Format

Remember: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

A Note about Access / Viewing Dates

An access date for an online work should generally be provided if the work lacks a publication date or if you suspect that the work has been altered or removed.

Here is an example where the website no longer exists:

"Rosemary K.: A Woman of Substance." Irish Americans On the Loose, Elfie Publishing, rosemaryk.net/book.aspx?id=10&eng. Accessed 18 June 2018.

For more information, see the Handbook's section 5.111, p. 211, and Figures 5.42 & 5.43, p. 144. 

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)

Last Name, First Name of video creator or Username of Creator. "Title of Video." Title of the Hosting Website, uploaded by Username, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of video. For more information, see the Handbook's sections 5.41, pp. 148-149 and 6.80, p. 285.

Works Cited List Example

Sethi, Ramit. "How to Write a Winning Resume, With Ramit Sethi." YouTube, uploaded by I Will Teach You to Be Rich, 23 June 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0fjkKCsM1w

 Note: If the video creator is unknown, begin the citation with the title of the video.

In-Text Citation Example

If video creator is known:

(Last Name of Video Creator Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

(Sethi 00:03:30-00:04:16)

If video creator is unknown:

("Words from Title" Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

("Secrets of Drawing" 02:40-03:25)

 Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.

 

For more information on citing videos found online, check out the MLA website

Streaming Video from a Library Database (Kanopy, Films on Demand, etc.)

Title of Video. Contributor(s), Publisher/Production Company, Date. Title of Library Database.

Note: Typically, films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.  

Works Cited List Example

     Ready Player One. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Warner Bros., 2018. Criterion.

In-text Citation Example 

     (Words From Title Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

     (Ready 02:05:01-02:06:12)

      Note: The title of the film is in italics in the in-text citation because that is how it appears in the Works Cited list.

      Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.

For more information of video titles, see the Handbook's section 2.109, p. 70.

DVD or Film

Title of Movie. Contributor(s). Publisher/Production Company, Year of Release. 

Note: Typically, films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.  

Works Cited List Example

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen    Baldwin, and Benicio Del Toro. Polygram, 1995. 

In-Text Citation Example

     (Title of Movie Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

     (The Usual Suspects 01:15:15-01:20:03)

     Note: The title of the film is in italics in the in-text citation because that is how it appears in the Works Cited list.

     Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.

 

Film from a Streaming Video Service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Prime, etc.)

Title of Movie. Contributor(s). Publisher/Production Company, Year of Release. Name of Streaming Service.

Note: Typically, films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.  

Works Cited List Example

     Coraline. Directed by Henry Selick, screenplay by Henry Selick and Neil Gaiman, Laika, 2009. Netflix.

In-Text Citation Example

     (Title of Movie Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

     (Coraline 1:25:15-01:40:05)

      Note: The title of the film is in italics in the in-text citation because that is how it appears in the Works Cited list

      Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.

Television Series Episode

"Title of Episode." Title of TV Series, Contributors Name(s), season, episode,  Production Company, Year of Release. 

Note: Typically films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.  

Note: Seasons of a television series are usually numbered in sequence, as are the episodes. Both numbers should be included in the works cited list if available.

Works Cited List Example

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends, created by Marta Kauffman, performance by Matthew Perry, season 6, episode 14, Warner Brothers, 2004. 

In-Text Citation Example

("Title of Episode" Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

("The One Where Chandler" 14:56-15:33)

Note: The title of the episode is in quotation marks in the in-text citation because that is how it appears in the Works Cited list

Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.

For more information, see the Handbook's sections 5.31-5.77, pp. 134-185.

Television Series Episode from a Streaming Video Service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Prime, etc.)

"Title of Episode." Title of TV Series, Contributors Name(s), season, episode,  Production Company, Year of Release, Name of Streaming Service

Note: Typically, films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.  

Note: Seasons of a television series are usually numbered in sequence, as are the episodes. Both numbers should be included in the works cited list if available.

Works Cited List Example

 

"The Gathering." Outlander, developed by Ronald D. Moore, performances by Caitriona Balfe and Sam Heughan, season 1, episode 4, Left Bank Picture/Sony Pictures Television Production, 2014. Netflix.

In-Text Citation Example

 

 

("Title of Episode" Start Time of Relevant Section-End Time of Section)

("The Gathering" 05:34-05:56)

Note: The title of the episode is in quotation marks in the in-text citation because that is how it appears in the Works Cited list

Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.