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Chicago Citation Style - Color Coded Guide: Periodicals

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition / Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th Edition

Journal Articles

[Hardcopy]

Cantor, Paul A. 2000. "Shakespeare in the Original Klingon: Star Trek

          and the End of History." Perspectives on Political Science 29 (3):

          158-66.


[From a database or website -- with a DOI -- see Notes and Discussion]

Devine, Patricia G., and Steven J. Sherman. 1992. "Intuitive Versus

          Rational Judgment and the Role of Stereotyping in the Human

          Condition: Kirk or Spock?" Psychological Inquiry 3 (2): 153-59.

          Accessed March 19, 2013. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13.


[From a database -- without a DOI but with a persistent URL -- see Notes and Discussion]

Hodges, F. M. 2003. "The Promised Planet: Alliances and Struggles of

          the Gerontocracy in American Television Science Fiction of the

          1960s." Aging Male 6 (3): 175-82. Accessed March 19, 2013. http://

          search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=

          12483037&site=ehost-live.


[From a database -- without a DOI or persistent URL -- see Notes and Discussion]

Roberts, Robin. 2001. "Performing Science Fiction: Television,

          Theater, and Gender in Star Trek: The Experience." Extrapolation

          42 (4): 340-56. Accessed March 19, 2013. Literature Resource

          Center (A82469996).


[From a website -- without a DOI -- see Notes and Discussion]

Coppa, Francesca. 2008. "Women, Star Trek, and the Early

          Development of Fannish Vidding." Transformative Works and

          Cultures 1. Accessed March 19, 2013. http://journal

          .transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/44/64.

Newspaper Articles

[From a database]

Di Rado, Alicia. 1995. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore

          Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles

          Times, March 15. Accessed April 10, 2013. ProQuest (293089200).

  • If the database provides a DOI or persistent URL, use that instead of the database name and identification number (see the examples for Journal Articles above and the Notes and Discussion below).
  • Note that the month and day are separated from the year.
  • Do not include the page numbers.
  • However, the newspaper's magazine section and weekend supplements should be treated as if they were regular magazines, so the page numbers (if available) should be included. See the example for magazine articles.


[Hardcopy or website]

Newspaper articles viewed on paper, microfilm, and websites should not be included in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text. Include only the author, article title, newspaper title, date, and - for websites - the date you looked at it. Do not include the page numbers or URL. If you incorporate some of the citation information into your text, then only the remaining information needs to be included in the parentheses.

  • (Sarah Lyall, "To Boldly Go Where Shakespeare Calls," New York Times, January 27, 2008, accessed April 10, 2013)

However, the newspaper's magazine section and weekend supplements should be treated as if they were regular magazines, so the page numbers (if available) should be included - but only the specific pages that you used, not the page range of the entire article. See the example for magazine articles.

Magazine Articles

[From a database]

Marks, John. 2011. "Beethoven vs Star Trek." Stereophile, December,

          51-57. Accessed April 21, 2013. General OneFile (A299639194).

  • If the database provides a DOI or persistent URL, use that instead of the database name and identification number (see the examples for Journal Articles above and the Notes and Discussion below).
  • Note that the month (and day if there is one) is separated from the year.


[Hardcopy or website]

Magazine articles viewed on paper, microfilm, and websites should not be included in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text. Include only the author, article title, magazine title, date, specific pages that you used (not the page range of the entire article), and - for websites - the date you looked at it. Do not include the URL. If you incorporate some of the citation information into your text, then only the remaining information needs to be included in the parentheses.

  • (John Marks, "Beethoven vs Star Trek," Stereophile, December 2011, 53, accessed April 21, 2013)

Notes and Discussion

  • General
    • There are two different Chicago Styles. The one shown here is for a Reference List (author-date system) which is starting to become the more common one. See this Chicago Citation Style LibGuide, the official website, or the printed manual for the other.
    • Double space all lines, including the reference list.
    • Set all margins to at least an inch. Do not justify.
    • The first word of each paragraph should be indented. Do not add an extra blank line before it.
    • If you are printing your paper on one side of the page, put the page numbers in the top right corner. If you are printing on both sides, put the page numbers in the top right corner on the front side (recto) and the top left corner on each back side (verso).

 

  • Reference Lists
    • At the top of your reference list, place the words, References or Works Cited.
    • Use either hanging indentations or indent only the first line.
    • Do not rely only on citation-generating software or websites or on the citation provided by the database where you found the article. The Manual (2010, 660) states, "The variety of sources typically cited in a scholarly work, however, nearly always precludes an acceptable result from software alone."
    • Mix together books, articles, and most other kinds of text sources. Videos, sound recordings, and other multimedia sources should be listed in their own section in the reference list, not mixed with your text sources. Court cases, statutes, laws, codes, bills, constitutions, and similar government documents should be cited with numbered notes at the end of your paper, following most of the rules in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (see the printed manual for exceptions). Do not include them in the reference list.
    • Citations should be arranged alphabetically, letter by letter, by the author's or editor's last name. If a source has no author or editor, alphabetize it by the first word of the title.

 

  • Authors
    • All authors should be listed, no matter how many there are.
    • Include the author's complete name, not just the initials. If the author uses two initials instead of a name, put a space after the first period.
    • Corporate authors: a company, organization, or government agency can also be an author. If the organization has a long name, create an abbreviation for it (if an official abbreviation does not already exist), and begin the reference with that, followed by the organization's full name in parentheses. If that organization is also the publisher, use the abbreviation where you would normally put the publisher's name. Use the abbreviation in the parenthetical reference. See the examples under the Websites and Parenthetical References tabs.
      • United States government agencies: It is not necessary to include "US" at the beginning unless it is needed to avoid confusion. You may name only the specific agency, not the entire hierarchy of departments that oversee it. If you do list them, put commas between units.
    • If there is no author, start with the title and then the date. See the examples under the Websites and Parenthetical References tabs.
    • If you use more than one source by an author, arrange them by date. Include the name only in the first entry. The following entries should begin with a 3-em dash (or six hyphens), followed by a period, the date, and the rest of the information (e.g., ———. 2016. Title. etc.).
      • If you use more than one source by an author with the same date, alphabetize them by title and place a lower case letter (a, b, c, etc.) after each year. Include the letters in your parenthetical references (e.g., ———. 2016b. Title. etc.)..

 

  • Dates
    • Books: If more than one date for a book is given, use the most recent. If no date is given, use n.d. Note that it is lowercased and that there is no space after the first period. Do not use this with websites.
      • If it is not the first edition, include the edition statement (abbreviated) right after the title (e.g., Author. Date. Title. 2nd ed. Place of publication, etc.).
    • Journals: It is only necessary to include the year, not the month or day.
    • Newspapers, magazines, blogs: Include the year, month, and day. Note that the month and day (if there is one) are separated from the year and are placed after the title.
    • Websites and online sources: It is only necessary to include the year, not the month or day - unless it is a modification date or access date (see below) or the item is a blog, online newspaper, or online magazine (see above).
      • Include the date that you looked at it (although documents being written for professional publication should not include it unless no other date is available).
      • If there is a revision or modification date in addition to (or instead of) a creation date, include that. Use it instead of the creation date for sources that are likely to be continuously changed, such as wikis. In this case, note that the month and day are separated from the year and are placed after the title.
      • If there is no date, use the date that you looked at the webpage. Note that the month and day are separated from the year and are placed after the title. Do not use n.d. with websites.
    • Audio, video, and multimedia: The first date listed should be the date that the video or recording was originally made. The date that it was posted online or rereleased in a different medium (such as the CD version of an LP record) comes later in the citation.
      • Online and streaming: If no date is given, use the date that you looked at/listened to it. Note that the month and day (if available) are separated from the year and are placed after the title.
      • DVD, CD, VHS, LP: If no date is given, use n.d. Note that it is lowercased and that there is no space after the first period. Do not use n.d. with online media.

 

  • Titles
    • Capitalize the first letter of every word except: "a," "an," "and," "as," "but," "for," "nor," "or," "the," "to," and all prepositions (unless they are being used adjectively or adverbially). However, do capitalize any of these words if they are the first or last word of a title or subtitle.
    • Use italics for the titles of books, periodicals (i.e., journals, newspapers, magazines, etc.), blogs, plays, podcasts, and online versions of books, periodicals and other publications that are analogous to hardcopy publications that would be italicized.
    • Use "quotation marks" for the titles of periodical articles, book chapters, encyclopedia articles, individual web pages, individual blog entries, unpublished works, dissertations, theses, and individual podcasts.
    • Use no italics and no quotation marks for the titles of databases, most websites (unless it is an online encyclopedia or book), book series, and regular columns in periodicals (place the column title after the article title and before the periodical title).
    • If a periodical begins with the word, "The," do not include it. Do include it with books, blogs, and other sources.
    • For lesser known newspapers that do not include the city name as part of their title, include the city (and sometimes the state in parentheses) as if it were part of the title.
    • Titles within titles (TWT) are when the title of one work appears inside the title of another work.
      • If the full title is placed within quotation marks: the TWT for books and periodicals are placed in italics. The TWT for articles and webpages are placed within 'single quotes.'
      • If the full title is placed within italics, then all TWTs are placed within quotation marks.

 

  • Volume and issue numbers
    • Multivolume books: Do not put spaces before or after the colon between the volume and page numbers (e.g., 5:2188-91).
    • Journals: If the journal continues the page numbering from issue to issue throughout the volume (paginated by volume), it is not necessary to include the issue number. "Nonetheless," the Manual (2010, 732) states, "it is never wrong to include the issue number."
      • If there is an issue number, it is not necessary to include the month or season (and vice versa), "though it is never incorrect to include it" (732).
      • Include a space between the volume and issue number and between the colon and page number (e.g., 29 (3): 158-66). If there is no issue number, do not put spaces before or after the colon (e.g., 29:158-66).

 

  • Page numbers:
    • Abbreviate the ranges of page numbers as follows:
      • When the first page number is under 100 or ends with "00," include all of the digits in the final page number. (e.g., 47-48 and 1700-1747).
      • When the first page number has a "0" as the second-to-last digit, abbreviate the final page number by including only the digits that change (e.g., 405-447 becomes 405-47 and 1701-1708 becomes 1701-8).
      • In all other situations, abbreviate the final page number by including only the digits that change, but you must include at least two or more digits. (e.g., 1234-1236 becomes 1234-36 not 1234-6).
    • Use hyphens, not en dashes. Your word processor might automatically use en dashes.
    • If the first page is given but not the last page, use ff. (e.g., 47ff.)
    • Online sources with no page numbers: With short documents posted as a single, scrolling page, no page numbers are needed. With long documents or those posted as several separate pages, include a chapter title, section title, paragraph number, chapter number, or some kind of description that will direct the reader to the right section. If this is not practical, they can also be left out. See the examples under the Parenthetical References tab.
    • Newspapers: Do not include the page numbers. However, the newspaper's magazine section and weekend supplements should be treated as if they were regular magazines, so the page numbers (if available) should be included. See the example for magazine articles.

 

  • Place of publication
    • This information is required only for books (hardcopy and online), DVDs, videocassettes, and similar materials, not for periodicals, websites, and sound recordings.
    • If more than one city is listed, use just the first one.
    • Use the postal abbreviations for state names.
    • Do not include the state if the city is well known or if it forms part of the publisher's name. Only include the state for less well known cities and Washington, DC.
    • If no location is listed, use N.p.

 

  • Publisher
    • This information is required only for books (hardcopy and online), online video, online sound recordings, CDs, LPs, DVDs, videocassettes, and similar materials, not for periodicals and websites.
    • Do not include "Co.," "Inc.," "Ltd.," "Publishing Co.," an initial "The," and similar words from the publisher's name. Include "Press" only if leaving it out might cause confusion. Abbreviate "University" as "Univ."
    • Company names that are given in all capital letters or all lowercase letters should be changed to have only the first letter of each word capitalized. Company names with internal capital letters should be left as is.
    • Do not include the parent company or companies of the publisher.
    • If no publisher is given, include only the place and date.

 

  • DOIs, URLs, and database names for online sources:
    • Online versions of hardcopy periodicals, books, and other documents are cited the same way as the hardcopy versions but with the addition of the date that you looked at it and either the DOI, URL, or database name and identification number. (Note that documents being written for professional publication should not include your access date unless no other date is available.)
    • The examples for how to do this are shown for Journal Articles under the Periodicals tab and can be added to any kind of online document, including websites.
    • Choose which one to use based on the discussion below:
      • First choice:  A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of numbers (and/or letters) assigned to individual journal articles, books, book articles, and other publications. The database may provide the DOI as part of the citation, or you may have to look at the top or bottom of the first page of the document to find it. Your readers can go to http://www.doi.org and use the DOI to locate the item. Do not capitalize DOI.
      • Second choice:  If there is no DOI, check to see if the database provides a persistent URL (sometimes called a permalink, persistent link or permanent link) for the document. This will usually be a much shorter and more reliable URL than the one that shows in the address bar of your web browser. If it's available, it will be found as part of the full citation that the database provides or by clicking a button on the side of the screen. Some databases might label this button something like, "bookmark this link," instead of "permanent link." Do not capitalize the "http."
      • Third choice:  If there is no DOI and no persistent URL, then include the database's name and the database's identification number for that document in parentheses. This will usually be found at the top or bottom of the complete citation and may sometimes be called an accession number or document number. If there is no identification number, it can be left out.
      • Last choice:  If there is no DOI and no persistent URL and no database name, then copy and paste the full URL from the address bar of your web browser. Do not capitalize the "http."
    • Include a period after the DOI or URL even though it is not part of the DOI or URL. Avoid breaking them up across lines. If they will not fit on one line:
      • Never put the line break at a hyphen.
      • Put the line break after double slashes and colons.
      • Put the line break after or before ampersands and equals signs.
      • Put the line break before periods, single slashes, and all other symbols and punctuation marks.

 

  • In-text and parenthetical references:
    • Include the number(s) of the page(s) that the citation is referring to, not the complete page range of the document.
    • If the same page of a particular document is referred to several times in a single paragraph, it can be cited once at the end. If different pages of a particular document are referred to in a single paragraph, cite it completely the first time and then cite only the page numbers the following times.
    • If you mention the author's name as part of the text, the remaining information should be placed in parentheses immediately after it.
    • If the authors of different sources have the same last name, add their first initials - even if the dates are different: (W. Riker 2013, 47) (T. Riker 2011, 74)

 

  • Block quotations
    • If a direct quotation runs more than six lines or over one hundred words, place it in a separate paragraph where all the lines are indented.
    • Do not use quotation marks.
    • Place the period after the quotation and before the parenthetical reference - unlike all other situations where the period (or other punctuation mark) should be placed after the parenthetical reference.

 

  • Indirect citations
    • Indirect citations are when you quote someone who is quoting someone else. The source that you looked at should be placed in the parenthetical reference (following "quoted in") and in the reference list. The author of the original quote, as well as the date of the original quote should be included in your text. If you wish, your text may include additional information about the original source. In this example, a quote by Zachary Smith was found in the article written by Hodges: In 1966, Zachary Smith said that "We all belong to the same race, the human race" (quoted in Hodges 2003, 180).

 

  • The official Chicago Manual of Style Online website includes a Chicago Style Q&A with frequently asked questions and answers, as well as a Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide with basic examples (for a fee, you can register to see the complete manual online).
  • For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual or the official website.


 

Follow These Color Codes:

Author(s)
Date
Title of Book/Website
Title of Article/Webpage
Title of Periodical
Volume
Pages
Place of Publication
Publisher/Database
Other Information

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