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APA Citation Style Guide: Citing Online Resources

Online Resources

√ Add enough information in order for others to locate the electronic resource (e.g. DOI, URL)

√DOI is an acronym for Digital Object Identifier.  It is a permanent link to an online resource represented by a string of numbers and letters

√ URL is an acronym for a Universal Resource Locator or web address.  Unlike a DOI, URLs can change and are not necessarily permanent

√ Use a DOI, if available, when citing an online resource.  Many citations in online databases have a DOI available

√ Not every online resource will have a DOI

 √ If no DOI is available use the URL of the resource

 √ Do not italicize titles of webpages, blog posts, etc. Only italicize titles of stand alone resources such as online books, journals, reports, reference works, etc.

 

√ Please refer to the online APA Style Guide to Electronic References for further information on citing electronic resources

 

Magazine Article from an Online Periodical when DOI is not available

Kelly, K. (2011, March). Why the basis of the universe isn't matter or energy, it's data. Wired, 19. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com /magazine/2011/02/mf_gleick_qa/

Newspaper Article from an Online Periodical when DOI is not available

Severson, K., & Martin, A. (2011, March 3). It's organic, but does that mean it's safer? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Scholarly Journal Articles from an Online Periodical when DOI is not available

Jitsumori, M. (2010). Do animals recognize pictures as representations of 3D objects? Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 5, 136-138. Retrieved from http://psyc.queensu.ca/ccbr/index.html

Article from Online Journal with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Reardon, S(2011).Ten months after Deepwater Horizon, picking up the remnants of heath data. Science, 331, 1252. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6022.1252

Mazerolle, S. M., Pagnotta, K. D., Salvatore, A. C., & Casa, D. J. (2013). Athletic training educators' pedagogical strategies for preparing students to address sudden death in sport. Athletic Training Education Journal, 8, 85-96. Retrieved from http://natajournals.org/doi/abs/10.4085/080485 

Article from an Online Database

 √ Cite as you would a print journal

√ Add enough information in order for others to locate the electronic resource (e.g. DOI, URL)

√ If there is no DOI available try to locate the main website for the journal and use the URL.  The latest version of APA Style does not recommend using the database name or URL in th citation.  It is preferred that you find the main website of the journal. If you have difficulty finding the journal website please consult with a librarian. 

Kakhnovets, R. (2011). Relationships among personality, expectations about counseling, and help-seeking attitudes. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 11-19. Retrieved from http://aca.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article& eissn=1556-6676volume=89&issue=1&spage=11

 

Advanced online publication

√ Before you submit your paper check to see if article is published. If it has been published, cite the published version

√ If no DOI is available use the journal URL

√ Add "Advanced online publication" (without quotes) in place of volume number. Do not italicize

√ Publishers may use different terminology for not yet published online resources (i.e. prepublished). But always use "Advanced online publication" in your citation.

Bjorn Brembs. (2011). Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies. Behavioural Processes. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2011.02.005

 

Online Version of a Print Book

Brynie, F. H. (2009). Brain Sense: The science of the senses and how we process the world around us [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/liu/docDetail.action?docID=10333735

 

Online only book

DeVoss, D. N., McKee, H. A., & Selfe, R. (Eds.). (2009). Technological ecologies and sustainability. Retrieved from http://ccdigitalpress.org/tes/

 

Online Encyclopedia

Signed

Blonigen, D. M., Krueger, R. F. (2007). "Personality and Violence: The Unifying Role of Structural Models of Personality." In The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/cupvba/personality_and_violence_the_unifying_role_of_structural_models_of_personality

Unsigned

Attention Deficit Disorder. (2009). In Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.xreferplus.com/entry.do?id=9788059

 

Web Pages, Blog posts, etc. (or PDF files)

√ Provide as much of the required information that you can find, including author, title, and date

√ If no author is apparent use the organization name as author

√ If no date is apparent (look for copyright statement) use the abbreviation for "no date," n.d. in parentheses (n.d.)

√ Be sure to provide enough information so the resource can be found

√ Titles of webpages, blog posts, etc., do not need to be italicized.

 

Dolphin Research Centre. (2007). Dolphin natural history. Retrieved from http://www.dolphins.org/marineed_natural_history.php

The Twilight Zone (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight_Zone

Browning, T. (1993). A brief historical survey of women writers of science fiction. Retrieved from http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~tonya/Tonya/sf/history.html

Roesler, S. (2015, June 22). Employee Engagement: Pay Attention to These [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.allthingsworkplace.com/2015/06/employee-engagement-pay-attention-to-these.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+allthingsworkplace+%28AllThingsWorkplace%29

 

√ Please refer to the online APA Style Guide to Electronic References for further information on citing electronic resources

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